General FAQ

What are “Nanomaterials”?

Any word that begins with “nano-” refers to something that is extremely small.

A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.

(For some perspective, the width of a typical human hair is approximately 90,000 nanometers.)


“Nanotechnology” is anything made on a nano-scale.

When we say “nanomaterials” we are talking specifically about extremely small units of a material – particles that are usually less than a 0.1 micron in diameter.

Why are Nanomaterials important?

Because of their small size and large surface areas, at a “nano scale” the characteristics of any material can change radically. The table below suggests some possible changes that are seen in certain materials.



Because of this, you can use nanomaterials to do things that would be impossible with the same material at a “normal” scale. The correct nanomaterial might, for example, speed up a chemical reaction, adsorb a contaminant or completely change the nature of a blend to which it is added.

Are Nanomaterials new?

Well, yes… and no.

Small amounts of nanomaterials have always been around. The famous 4th century glass Roman Lycurgus Cup, when lit from behind, glows red. However, when a light shines on the outside of the vessel it is a non-descript green. Tiny amounts of gold and silver nanoparticles, probably from workshop dust–incorporated into the glass of the cup – give it this remarkable quality. But Roman glassmakers had no idea what created this “magical” dichroic effect and the first examples were probably lucky accidents.


We now understand the nature of nanomaterials.  So the nanomaterials we create today are not accidents but made for very specific purposes. Businesses use them can create superior products, reduce costs and even protect the environment.

What have been the challenges in making commercial quantities of nanomaterials?

There are two main challenges to the commercial use of many nanomaterials.

First,  because nanomaterials are so small, they are often expensive to manufacture particularly in large quantities. Many nanomaterial companies produce only a few pounds (or even less) a month. Hence, nanomaterials can be very expensive.

Second, a related problem – while the effectiveness of a particular nanomaterial often depends on the uniformity of particle sizes, it is often difficult to make quantities of nanomaterials with great particle consistency.

ShayoNano has solved these problems.

How has ShayoNano been able to solve the “nanomaterial challenge”?

ShayoNano had developed an economical technology and process that create very specific nanomaterials with the desired characteristics. These nanomaterials are extremely uniform in size.

What’s equally important is ShayoNano’s technology is extremely scale-able and can be used to make tons of materials for large-scale applications.

Using this powerful technology to create nanomaterials, ShayoNano has developed innovative products and processes that address real world problems in an economical, efficient and eco-friendly way, starting with 8 important products.

Can ShayoNano’s technology be applied to other problems?

Absolutely! We are actively looking for new applications for our existing products (some of which may require a bit of “fine tuning” of the material). We are also looking for large-scale problems that need solutions – in manufacturing, energy, the environment, etc.

FAQ for SmartHide™

How does SmartHide work as a partial TiO2 replacement?

Answer: In water-based paints, SmartHide provides tinting and opacifying similar to TiO2. It replaces TiO2 in a 1:3 ratio (that is, you use 1 part of SmartHide for every 3 parts of TiO2) and can replace up to 25% of TiO2 in most paints.

How is SmartHide supplied?

Answer: For ease of use, SmartHide is supplied as a water-based paste. It should be maintained in the wetted paste form for ease of handling.

How is SmartHide used?

Answer: Add SmartHide (a water-based paste) to the paint in place of a portion of the TiO2 that would otherwise be used. Be sure to adjust the amount of SmartHide paste to account for the water in the product.

Does SmartHide provide additional values beyond opacity (TiO2 replacement)?

Answer: Because SmartHide is used in smaller quantities to achieve opacity, it can reduce some material handling and inventory.

Can I use SmartHide in combination with other TiO2 alternatives or extenders (such as some special polymers that I am currently using)?

Answer: In many cases, the answer is “yes” and SmartHide will provide additional reduction in TiO2 usage. But please check with ShayoNano first. In some cases it may be advisable to make up test batches to see if the amount of SmartHide needs to be varied for optimal results.

Should I dry SmartHide out before using?

Answer: No. SmartHide has been optimized to perform best when introduced in a paste form. You should always prevent it from drying out – normally by storing it sealed in the original packaging until just before you add it to the paints.

Is SmartHide made of nano TiO2?

Answer: No. SmartHide is synthesized from metals but it is not a nano titanium dioxide.

FAQ for SmartCaroSorb™

What is β-Carotene and what are its major uses and applications?

Answer: Biologically, β-Carotene is important as a vitamin A precursor and natural food colorant. Natural β-Carotene has many additional benefits for health.

What is SmartCaroSorb?

Answer: SmartCaroSorb is a synthetic nanomaterial used to extract β-Carotene from natural sources such as palm oil, carrot juice.

What are the major advantages of SmartCaroSorb over other separation methods?

Answer: It is efficient, economical and works at ambient temperature and pressure. In addition, it does not alter the chemical properties of the source materials

Can palm oil be used after extraction of β-Carotene by SmartCaroSorb?

Answer: Yes, it can be refined into edible oil as the extraction of β-Carotene doesn’t alter the chemical properties of the oil.

FAQ for Indonite™

What is Indonite?

Answer: Indonite is a high-purity synthetic material that provides excellent clarity and rheological properties when dispersed in water.

What are the properties of Indonite?

Answer: Indonite forms a high viscous clear gel (a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic) when fully dispersed in water. It exhibits excellent thixotropic viscosity and high shear thinning capability.

How do I use Indonite?

Answer: In any type of formulation, Indonite is first dispersed fully in water before use. For best results, add Indonite to water slowly under agitation. After a few minutes of rapid stirring, Indonite fully disperses and forms a clear, thixotropic gel when agitation stops.

How much Indonite should be used?

Answer: The amount of Indonite required depends upon the application. Typical amounts range from 0.5% to 6%.

Can Indonite be used with organic solvents?

Answer: Yes, some modified grades of Indonite are suitable for use with organic solvents.

What are the advantages of using Indonite as compared to natural nanoclays (such as montmorillonite or allophane)?

Answer: One of the most important benefits is the high purity and consistence of Indonite – which is syntheticnanoclay. Indonite is synthesized in a controlled environment so that it achieves both high purity and desired properties for different product grades. In addition, Indonite is not mined and is less expensive than some natural nanoclay.

Why do clumps sometimes form during dispersion of Indonite in water?

Answer: This is the result of incomplete dispersion. To avoid this, you should first make sure to add Indonite slowly to water while agitating. If clumps still form, you may need to do one or more of the following:

  • Heat the water to improve dispersion,
  • Increase the rpm of the stirrer,
  • Expose the solution to ultra sound for a few minutes and then continue stirring.

In one test, Indonite did not form a gel after stirring. Why?

Answer: Different Indonite grades have different gelling times but, with proper stirring, all will form gels eventually. Required times range from a few minutes to hours. If fast gelling is desired, you may wish to choose a different grade of Indonite.

Can Indonite be added directly to a formulation (i.e., as a dry powder)?

Answer: It is not recommended to add Indonite to a formulation as a dry powder because this may cause flocculation and low viscosity. It is always better to disperse Indonite in water before adding the resulting gel to a formulation.

How is Indonite supplied?

Answer: Indonite is available as a solid powder or a wetted gel depending on the application.

US Contact Address
Houston Technology Center,
Suite 106, 410 Pierce Street,
Houston, Texas – TX 77002, USA